ACT English Practice Test 75: Maria Montessori's Method

DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, certain words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the right-hand column, you will find alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE.” In some cases, you will find in the right-hand column a question about the underlined part. You are to choose the best answer to the question.

You will also find questions about a section of the passage, or about the passage as a whole. These questions do not refer to an underlined portion of the passage, but rather are identified by a number or numbers in a box.

For each question, choose the alternative you consider best and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. Read each passage through once before you begin to answer the questions that accompany it. For many of the questions, you must read several sentences beyond the question to determine the answer. Be sure that you have read far enough ahead each time you choose an alternative.


The following paragraphs may or may not be in the most logical order. You may be asked questions about the logical order of the paragraphs, as well as where to place sentences logically within any given paragraph.

Maria Montessori's Method

[1]

At the end of the 19th century, Maria Montessori became first modern woman physician. Early in her career, she struggled to advance male-dominated profession. As a member of the University of Rome faculty, she was assigned to the city's insane asylums to experiment with the patients' capacity to task considered menial by medical professionals at the time. Although her education was in , her interaction with mentally-disabled children drew her to study the processes of the mind and, specifically, . By 1906, she had resigned from the university to pursue a career in child education.

[2]

[1] Her observation of these children inspired her life's work in teaching and the pursuit of progressive educational restructuring. [2] Montessori established a "children's house" in Rome to foster an environment ideally suited for child development. [3] Her efforts led her students-even those with supposed learning disabilities-to excel at standardized examinations. [4] In the children's house, Montessori realized how learn from their environment. 38

[3]

At its core, the Montessori Method is . Comparison of a to universal standards and norms is discouraged, since it is believed that children naturally develop in at different times. Acknowledging this, a Montessori educator closely the child and provides him or her with the tools necessary for independent learning. Adults avoid giving criticism for mistakes and rewards for successes. The goal of these steps is to ease the child into an environment of learning without fear. Self-learning and self-correction are the fundamental processes of the Montessori Method, Maria Montessori showed will foster a lifelong love of learning and joy in the pursuit of one's goals.

[4]

Today, children are taught with the Montessori Method in in the United States and many countries around the world. With increasing pressure on schools to provide quality education to a growing population, Montessori's visionary ideas of teaching self-reliance and love of learning continue to gain popularity. 45

1.

A. NO CHANGE
B. the Italian
C. Italys
D. Italy's

2.

F. NO CHANGE
G. for a
H. in the
J. due to their

3.

A. NO CHANGE
B. learn, a
C. learn a
D. learn

4. At this point, the writer would like to provide specific information about Montessori's education. Which alternative does that best?

F. NO CHANGE
G. anatomy and physiology
H. the way the human body works
J. science

5.

A. NO CHANGE
B. the method by which children learn
C. children learning
D. a child's ways to learn

6.

F. NO CHANGE
G. She got her first sixty children that were working-class, and
H. Starting with sixty working-class children,
J. She had sixty working-class children first, so

7.

A. NO CHANGE
B. children, readily
C. children ready
D. readily children

8. For the sake of logic and coherence, Sentence 1 should be placed:

F. where it is now.
G. after Sentence 2.
H. after Sentence 3.
J. after Sentence 4.

9. At this point, the writer would like to provide the reader with a more specific definition of the Montessori Method. Assuming all are true, which of the following does that best?

A. NO CHANGE
B. a philosophy of teaching.
C. a means of fostering development and learning in children.
D. a style of teaching utilized in many school districts.

10.

F. NO CHANGE
G. childs' development
H. developing child
J. child that is developing

11.

A. NO CHANGE
B. different ways and acquire skills
C. different ways, and acquire, skills
D. different ways; and acquire skills

12.

F. NO CHANGE
G. is observing
H. observes
J. can observe

13.

A. NO CHANGE
B. though
C. despite
D. which

14.

F. NO CHANGE
G. schools, both public, and private,
H. both public and private schools
J. public schools and private schools both,

15. Suppose the writer were to eliminate Paragraph 4. This omission would cause the essay as a whole to lose primarily:

A. relevant details about the current development and utilization of Montessori education.
B. irrelevant details about the past development and utilization of Montessori education.
C. information that distracts from the essay's primarily biographical tone.
D. a conclusion that reiterates the main purpose of the passage.