ACT English Practice Test 93: Walter Reed's Medical Breakthrough

DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, certain words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the right-hand column, you will find alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE.” In some cases, you will find in the right-hand column a question about the underlined part. You are to choose the best answer to the question.

You will also find questions about a section of the passage, or about the passage as a whole. These questions do not refer to an underlined portion of the passage, but rather are identified by a number or numbers in a box.

For each question, choose the alternative you consider best and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. Read each passage through once before you begin to answer the questions that accompany it. For many of the questions, you must read several sentences beyond the question to determine the answer. Be sure that you have read far enough ahead each time you choose an alternative.


Walter Reed's Medical Breakthrough

Just over 100 years ago, one of the most important medical relieved the suffering and saved the lives of untold thousands. This major breakthrough was the identification of the cause and spread of the disease yellow fever. For several centuries, yellow fever in various parts of the world, striking towns and killing thousands of people.

the efforts of Major Walter Reed and many courageous volunteers, the mechanisms for contracting and spreading yellow fever were uncovered.

During Reed's lifetime, it was that yellow fever was spread by contact with infected the clothing or blankets of a person with yellow fever. Some doctors, however, questioned this notion, as the spread of yellow fever was not consistent with the spread of other communicable diseases. 6

Doubts about the accepted of the fever's spread prompted the U.S. Army to assign Reed and several doctors to the problem. They studied yellow fever in Cuba, where infecting soldiers fighting in the Spanish American War at rate. Acting on a hunch, several doctors volunteered to be bitten by mosquitoes; the volunteers developed yellow fever. This was enough information to spur General Reed to conduct more comprehensive . American and Spanish soldiers were paid to participate in these experiments, but some participants wanted only to advance science and refused the money.

The experiments began with the construction of a building in which men who did not have yellow fever were housed. These men were placed in contact with clothing that by yellow fever victims. Not one of these men contracted the second building was constructed with two sides separated by a screen. An infected volunteer lived on one side, and more volunteers lived on the other side, where they were completely protected from mosquitoes. This experiment was many times, and the volunteers who were protected from mosquitoes never contracted the fever.

14 Due to his findings and the bravery of the volunteers, measures were taken to control the mosquito population and to keep the insects away from people. Eventually a vaccine was developed,

1.

A. NO CHANGE
B. discoveries in modern, times
C. discoveries, in modern times,
D. discoveries in modern times

2.

F. NO CHANGE
G. was in societies as a scourge
H. was a scourge and also problematic in societies
J. was annoying

3.

A. NO CHANGE
B. In spite of
C. It was
D. Regardless of

4.

F. NO CHANGE
G. accepted as a common fact
H. commonly accepted
J. accepted in a common way

5.

A. NO CHANGE
B. items. Such as
C. items, such as
D. items such as being

6. Which of the following sentences, if inserted here, would be the best example of how yellow fever seemed to be spread differently than other communicable diseases?

F. For example, people had no choice but to wear clothing and use blankets, so the fever could not have spread that way.
G. For example, sometimes one person would get sick in a household, while nobody else in that household would get sick.
H. For example, yellow fever caused a great deal of pain in its victims.
J. For example, some doctors were willing to go against what the rest of the medical establishment was saying.

7.

A. NO CHANGE
B. theorize
C. theories'
D. theories

8.

F. NO CHANGE
G. the disease was
H. the doctors were
J. the Army was

9. The writer wants to emphasize how quickly yellow fever was infecting the troops in the Spanish American War. Which choice does that best?

A. NO CHANGE
B. a great
C. an alarming
D. a normal

10.

F. NO CHANGE
G. experiments; which helped his cause.
H. experiments (which helped his cause).
J. experiments.

11.

A. NO CHANGE
B. had been worn
C. has been worn
D. was being worn

12.

F. NO CHANGE
G. fever, while a
H. fever; and a
J. fever, a

13.

A. NO CHANGE
B. repeated
C. repeating
D. a repeat of

14. Which choice, assuming they are all true, would most logically introduce the final paragraph?

F. These results convinced Reed that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes, and not by contact with contaminated materials.
G. A memorial was built in honor of the volunteers who helped advance the cause of science.
H. Reed died within a year of making these discoveries, but his contributions to medicine will never be forgotten.
J. Major Walter Reed not only was crucial to the eradication of yellow fever, but he performed research on typhoid as well.

15.

A. NO CHANGE
B. which further reduced the incidence of yellow fever outbreaks.
C. which is often too expensive for poor residents of tropical countries who are most susceptible to yellow fever.
D. and it was no longer necessary for people to risk their health and lives to determine the cause and spread of disease.