ACT reading practice test 12

DIRECTIONS: Each passage is followed by several questions. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. You may refer to the passages as often as necessary.

NATURAL SCIENCE: This passage is adapted from the entry “Dr. Pete Vukusic, Exeter University” from Thirty Contemporary Scientists (? 2007 Beekman and The Rat Publishers).

1. What comparison does the author make between pigment and structure?

A. Colors produced by pigment are more brilliant than those produced by structure.
B. Colors created by structure are more brilliant than those produced by pigment.
C. Pigment and structure work in much the same way to create brilliant colors.
D. Colors produced by structure are twenty times more brilliant than those produced by pigment.

2. As it is used in line 35, the word employ most nearly means:

F. hire.
G. pay.
H. retain.
J. use.

3. It is most reasonable to infer that if the innovations of the cosmetics company referred to in line 27 were successful, which of the following would occur?

A. Many other scientists would be hired to create similar products for competing cosmetic companies.
B. Dr. Vukusic's research would no longer be available for uses such as car paint or anti-counterfeit measures.
C. People would be able to create unique and previously unattainable visual effects with their appearance.
D. People would realize that such surrealistic effects are better confined to animals and insects in the natural world.

4. Which of the following best describes how the phrase "schools of fish and plant life below" (line 21) functions in the passage?

F. As an example of what iridescent light looks like to Dr. Vukusic
G. As a comparison that suggests iridescence provides more to see than the flat color on the surface of an object
H. As an illustration of how iridescence is also seen in fish and plant life
J. As a suggestion to encourage people to appreciate the beauty of nature

5. According to the passage, swallowtail butterflies are dependent on:

A. camouflage.
B. light.
C. photonic crystals.
D. fluorescence.

6. Which of the following questions is NOT answered by the passage?

F. Why can't most light emitted from standard LEDs escape?
G. Why might a bright blue morpho butterfly use brilliant color?
H. How do swallowtail butterflies emit brilliant blue-green light?
J. How is a butterfly's fluorescent color produced?

7. As it is used in line 70, the word lost most nearly means:

A. missing.
B. useless.
C. omitted.
D. withdrawn.

8. Which of the following statements best describes light in a butterfly's wing and its significance in relation to a photonic crystal, according to the passage?

F. Butterfly wings are made of hundreds of tiny photonic crystals, each emitting a ray of light.
G. If butterfly wings did not contain photonic crystals, butterflies would not be able to signal their peers from long distances.
H. Because the wing has tiny holes that work like a photonic crystal, brilliant color is able to escape from the wing.
J. The tiny scales of a butterfly's wing are able to reflect light much like a photonic crystal works in an LED.

9. According to the model for color-producing nanostructures as it is presented in the passage, what is the route that light travels to create iridescence?

A. Reflects at angles, reflects to viewer, hits the structure
B. Reflects to viewer, hits the structure, reflects at angles
C. Reflects at angles, hits the structure, reflects to viewer
D. Hits the structure, reflects at angles, reflects to viewer

10. The passage states that which of the following combinations of qualities rarely occurs in the same material?

F. Standard LEDs with fluorescent light
G. Standard LEDs with a high extraction of light
H. Standard LEDs with a low extraction of light
J. Standard LEDs with intense pigmentation