ACT Reading Practice Test 62: Natural Science - Michigan's Beloved Songbird

DIRECTIONS: Each passage is followed by several questions. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. You may refer to the passages as often as necessary.

1. In the context of the passage as a whole, it is most reasonable to infer that the phrase "jack pine areas are currently managed on a rotating basis" (lines 46–47) means that:

A. resources are limited, so work must be done on one small section of forest at a time.
B. forests are occasionally burned to encourage new tree growth.
C. lumber is harvested only as fast as tree re-growth permits.
D. efforts to restore the Kirtland's warbler habitat are detrimental to other species.

2. The passage suggests that the population of the Kirtland's warbler declined in the past because forest management policies:

F. failed to account for unforeseen ecological consequences of fire prevention.
G. permitted excessive logging of nesting trees.
H. aimed to eliminate the jack pine.
J. catered exclusively to the powerful industrial establishment.

3. What does the passage offer as evidence that Kirtland's warblers have environmental sensitivities?

A. Cowbird eggs incubating at the expense of warbler eggs
B. Males and females arriving in Michigan at different times of year
C. Long period during which hatchlings need to stay in the nest
D. Nests requiring an uncommon environment

4. It can be inferred that the author feels Michigan, not the Bahamas, is the Kirtland's warbler's natural habitat because the birds:

F. inhabit very specific parts of Michigan.
G. migrate from the tropics a great distance to summer in Michigan.
H. are protected by endangered species laws in the United States.
J. mate and raise offspring in Michigan.

5. According to the passage, what is the reason jack pine forests declined in the early 1900s?

A. Logging in the 1800s decimated mature jack pines, which produce hearty seeds.
B. Logging in the 1800s left room for low-growing shrubs that accelerated the spread of many forest fires.
C. Forest management focused on eradication of the wildfires necessary for jack pine proliferation.
D. Forest management placed a higher value on some trees than others.

6. What does the author suggest in lines 54–55 by stating that the cowbird is a brood parasite?

F. The cowbird exploits the nesting instincts of the Kirtland's warbler.
G. The cowbird feeds on the eggs of Kirtland's warblers.
H. The cowbird shows wanton disregard for the survival of the Kirtland's warbler.
J. The cowbird's appearance is marked by unappealing plumage.

7. The passage states that the habitat needs of the Kirtland's warbler, as compared to those of other birds, are:

A. less specific.
B. more specific.
C. equally specific.
D. little understood.

8. According to the passage, which of the following correctly states the relationship of the Jack pine to fire?

F. Fire is the mechanism by which cones release their seeds.
G. Fire stimulates the Jack pine to produce seed-bearing cones.
H. Fire destroys small, weak trees, leaving room for Jack pine seeds to grow to maturity.
J. Fire expands through Jack pine forests particularly fast.

9. The author states that the main reason for the Kirtland's warbler's decline is:

A. its rapid life cycle.
B. cowbird infestations.
C. strain on its habitat.
D. logging of jack pines in the past.

10. As it is used in lines 30–32, the term Grayling sand most nearly means:

F. grey or silver soil, which is rich in ore deposits.
G. highly permeable soil suitable for some vegetation.
H. nutrient-poor sandy soil that occurs along salt water beaches.
J. dry riverbed soil that once supported a population of Grayling fish.