ACT Reading Practice Test 70: Natural Science - A Short History of Homeopathy

DIRECTIONS: Each passage is followed by several questions. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. You may refer to the passages as often as necessary.

1. The passage mentions all of the following about the use of homeopathy to treat disease EXCEPT that:

A. it is used to treat everything from cancer to colds and flu.
B. it is based on the theory of treating like with like.
C. its doses are administered in infinitesimal amounts.
D. it is scientifically proven to be effective.

2. According to the fifth paragraph (lines 63–75), Hahnemann hypothesized that heavily diluted substances remained effective because:

F. shaking each dilution imprinted the molecular memory of the original substance into the solution.
G. substances that were too strong often had no effect on the patient.
H. dilution made the substance more similar to the original disease.
J. he used modern methodology for testing potential treatments, foregoing any information learned in the past.

3. Hahnemann believed cinchona bark was an effective treatment for malaria because it caused similar symptoms when taken by a healthy person. According to the fourth paragraph, what reason would a modern scientist likely give for using cinchona bark to treat malaria?

A. Recent clinical studies show that traditional medicines can sometimes be as effective as modern medicines.
B. Clinical studies show cinchona bark is an effective treatment for malaria, but only in undiluted doses.
C. Cinchona bark contains quinine, and quinine is known to be an effective treatment for malaria.
D. No modern scientist would recommend using cinchona bark to treat malaria.

4. According to the passage, one of the reasons modern scientists are unable to find evidence to support homeopathic treatment is because:

F. homeopathic cure rates are superior to those of placebos.
G. there is a substantial amount of standardized clinical data on homeopathic treatment.
H. the theory of molecular memory is well-documented.
J. the idea that diluting a substance makes it stronger runs against the principles of chemistry and physics.

5. Information in the last paragraph indicates that:

A. homeopathy should only be used to treat colds and flu.
B. based on clinical studies, conventional scientists are unnecessarily harsh in their judgment of homeopathy.
C. despite a lack of clinical data, homeopathy remains a popular form of treatment, even among doctors and pharmacists.
D. pharmacies are the safest places to buy homeopathic treatments.

6. The passage indicates that, in the Middle Ages, illness was thought to be caused by an imbalance in the "humors" that was best treated by:

F. administering approved medications.
G. sitting in a hot, wet, steam room.
H. draining off the excess humors.
J. tilting the patient's bed to improve blood flow.

7. According to the passage, a person with a sanguine disposition would most likely be which of the following?

A. Hot and dry.
B. Hot and wet.
C. Cold and wet.
D. Cold and dry.

8. As it is used in line 62, the word practices most nearly means:

F. exercises.
G. habits.
H. medical offices.
J. methods of treatment.

9. According to the passage, why did Hahnemann use heavily diluted substances to treat patients?

A. Undiluted substances were frequently too expensive for all but the richest patients.
B. He believed undiluted substances would only worsen the patient's symptoms.
C. He believed a patient's memory of treatment was more important than the treatment itself.
D. It allowed him to use several different treatments on a single patient.

10. In the last paragraph, the author expresses which of the following beliefs about homeopathy?

F. Homeopathy is medically unproven and thus practiced only by quacks.
G. Homeopathy is a necessary form of treatment that should be widely used to help the sick.
H. Homeopathy is a controversial form of medical treatment that is frequently used, despite a lack of supporting evidence.
J. Doctors in Europe are in agreement about the effectiveness of homeopathy.