ACT Reading Practice Test 78: Natural Science

DIRECTIONS: Each passage is followed by several questions. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. You may refer to the passages as often as necessary.



1. According to the passage, many scientists feel that most ash decline is likely caused:

A. almost exclusively by ash yellows.
B. by a combination of disease and environmental factors.
C. by improper watering and fertilization by homeowners.
D. by a combination of ash yellows and verticillium wilt only.

2. The passage likens verticillium wilt to ash yellows in that:

F. both diseases share the symptoms of cankers and dieback.
G. verticillium is likely to be a cause of ash yellows in white and green ash trees.
H. poor watering and fertilization techniques can cause verticillium wilt and ash yellows.
J. verticillium wilt and ash yellows were discovered around the same time period and kill a similar number of trees.

3. The difficulty in diagnosing disease in an ash tree is due to all of the following EXCEPT:

A. similar diseases that have similar symptoms.
B. some ash trees in decline may be unhealthy due to environmental conditions rather than diseases.
C. more than one factor could be contributing to an ash tree's decline.
D. sick ash trees are difficult to test because they decline so rapidly.

4. The passage states that ash yellows is caused by:

F. insufficient water.
G. virus-like pathogens.
H. insects that eat or destroy the leaves of the ash trees.
J. cankers, witches' broom, and cracking in the tree trunk.

5. According to the passage, the author believes that:

A. landscapers should never use ash trees in landscaping designs.
B. ash trees are the most important tree in North America.
C. ash trees are important because they can provide a home for some wildlife.
D. ash trees are essential to ecosystems because they lock in heat from the sun to warm shady forests.

6. According to the passage, which of the following is an argument for NOT blaming ash decline solely on ash yellows?

F. Most ash decline is caused by verticillium wilt, not ash yellows.
G. A study cited in the passage proves that only environmental factors have impacted ash decline in recent years.
H. A study mentioned in the passage shows that drought and weather may contribute to ash decline.
J. verticillium wilt, ash yellows, and environmental conditions all contribute to ash decline equally.

7. As it is used in line 60, the word flourish most nearly means:

A. decorate.
B. prosper.
C. decline.
D. enhance.

8. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

F. It is important for research to continue into a cure for ash yellows.
G. Ash yellows is not worthy of continued scientific research.
H. All ash trees in North America will need to be destroyed to stop the spread of disease.
J. Ash trees are not significant to the good health of plant and animal communities.

9. According to the passage, what is NOT a characteristic of the disease ash yellows?

A. The pathogens that cause the disease are spread by insects.
B. It causes a gradual decline in the tree's health.
C. Its symptoms include a sparse canopy and defoliation.
D. It turns the leaves of ash trees bright yellow.

10. Which of the following are accurate statements about ash trees, according to the passage?

I. Ash trees with ash yellows disease are easily cured.

II. Ash trees infected with ash yellows usually die after having the disease for two to ten years.

III. Ash trees infected with ash yellows do not usually recover.

IV. Ash trees infected with ash yellows sometimes appear to recover in the spring.

F. I, II, III, IV
G. II and III only
H. I and IV only
J. II, III, and IV only