ACT science practice test 65

Directions: Each passage is followed by several questions. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. You may refer to the passages as often as necessary.

You are NOT permitted to use a calculator on this test.

Astronomers have found over 400 planets orbiting stars. The discovered planets have a variety of compositions, masses, and orbits. Despite the variety, the universal rules of physics and chemistry allow scientists to broadly categorize these planets into just a few types: Gas Giant, Carbon Orb, Water World, and Rocky Earth. Table 1 shows the composition of the various planet types and typical mass ranges relative to Earth.

Table 1


Table 2 shows a sampling of planets orbiting various stars described in Table 1. These planets are merely numbered 1–7. Table 2 details the masses and orbital radii of the planets.

Table 2


1. The data in Table 1 and Table 2 support which of the following statements?

A. Gas Giant planets have the largest orbital radii.
B. Orbital radius is directly related to mass.
C. Orbital radius is inversely related to mass.
D. The data does not support a correlation between mass and orbital radius.

2. According to Table 1 and Table 2, which of the following stars has the most massive Gas Giant planet orbiting it?

F. Gliese 777
G. OGLE TR 132
H. PSR 1257
J. Gliese 581

3. If a new planet were discovered, with a mass of 325, an orbital radius of 1.5, and a composition of mostly hydrogen, what would be its most likely classification?

A. Carbon Orb
B. Water
C. Rocky Earth
D. Gas Giant

4. All of the following are true about the star Gliese 581 EXCEPT:

F. Gliese 581 has multiple planets orbiting it.
G. Gliese 581 has the most massive planet orbiting it.
H. Gliese 581 has planets orbiting it that are classified as water.
J. Gliese 581 has only planets with masses less than 50 Earth masses orbiting it.

5. The Rocky Earth planets in Table 2 have what in common?

A. Their masses are less than 20 Earth masses.
B. They are only found in deep space.
C. Hydrogen is a major component of the crust.
D. Their orbits are all less than 1 Earth radius.

A group of researchers studied the greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy savings associated with rigid plastic foam sheathing used to insulate single-family housing. The results show the typical annual energy savings for a single house in the United States. Table 1 displays energy savings for various temperature zones, whereas Table 2 shows GHGs avoided.

Table 1


Table 2


There is an initial use of energy and GHG released when the insulation is installed, but large savings result from the use of the product over time. After the “payback” time expires, there is a net savings in energy and GHG emissions for as long as the insulation is in place. Figure 1 displays the payback time in years for energy savings and GHGs avoided.


Figure 1

6. Foam sheathing proved to create the highest energy savings in Zone 5 for what type of energy?

F. Coal
G. Nuclear
H. Natural Gas
J. Petroleum

7. According to the data presented in Table 1 and Table 2, which of the following is true?

A. Foam sheathing prevents more HCFC-141b than HCFC-142b from entering the atmosphere.
B. The yearly energy savings vary more by zone than the yearly GHGs avoided.
C. The warmer the zone, the less the energy savings from petroleum.
D. The U.S. average for GHGs avoided is greatest for carbon dioxide.

8. According to Figure 1, the GHG payback for Zone 3 is approximately:

F. 11 years.
G. 2 years.
H. 13 years.
J. 9 years.

9. According to Table 1, what zone and fuel combination yield the greatest energy savings after 1 year?

A. Nuclear in Zone 1
B. HCFC-142b in Zone 3
C. Coal in Zone 5
D. Natural gas in Zone 1

10. Ten years after installing rigid plastic foam sheathing in Zone 3, which of the following is true?

F. The customer will have produced fewer GHGs, but will not yet have saved money on energy.
G. The customer will have saved money on energy, but will not yet have produced fewer GHGs.
H. The customer will have neither saved money on energy nor produced fewer GHGs.
J. The customer will have both saved money on energy and produced fewer GHGs.

11. Based on the data in Table 1, which of the following lists the fuels that yielded the highest average energy savings, in decreasing order?

A. Natural gas, coal, and nuclear
B. Hydropower, nuclear, and other
C. Coal, natural gas, and nuclear
D. Nuclear, petroleum, and coal