ACT english practice test 20

DIRECTIONS: In the passages that follow, certain words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the right-hand column, you will find alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases, you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE.” In some cases, you will find in the right-hand column a question about the underlined part. You are to choose the best answer to the question.

You will also find questions about a section of the passage, or about the passage as a whole. These questions do not refer to an underlined portion of the passage, but rather are identified by a number or numbers in a box.

For each question, choose the alternative you consider best and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. Read each passage through once before you begin to answer the questions that accompany it. For many of the questions, you must read several sentences beyond the question to determine the answer. Be sure that you have read far enough ahead each time you choose an alternative.

Man's Best Friend


More and more, people are treating their pets like royalty. Where once it was considered extravagant to put a sweater or a pair of shoes on a dog that61 it is almost to the point now where it is considered an abuse not to dress your dog for cold weather! Large pet stores are not the only ones that benefit62 from people's interest in dogs—raising pets has become an industry all its own, with significant representation in the clothing, publishing, and entertainment industries, to name a few. How did we ever get this way?


Archaeologists have found cultural and skeletal evidence of domesticated dogs as far back as 6500 BCE in Mesopotomia and as far back as 8300 BCE in what is now North America. Put simply, dogs have been around as domesticated animals for a long time and in all different parts of the world. Some historians suggest that dogs as a species evolved into something close to their current form as many as 100,000 years ago, and many historians estimate that dogs were first domesticated as many as 15,000 years ago. There are over 800 different breeds of dogs, and many more that cannot be classified into a single breed.63


Although64 dogs have been bred and domesticated for many reasons throughout history, the primary reason for their breeding in ancient times was their usefulness as hunting companions. Dogs' agility and sense of smell still, to this day, help hunters to capture their prey. Dogs were also often used as protectors, whom65 primary responsibility was to sit in front of a residence or place of gathering and scare away would-be robbers and evildoers.


[1] Since the eighteenth century, by way of example66, dogs have been seen more as companions and family members than in such impersonal roles67 as hunters or guardsmen. [2] From this point in time, the dog has increasingly filled the role of domesticated pet, and according to the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association, 39% of Americans currently own at least one dog, and there are no fewer then68 74 million owned dogs in the United States. [3] Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment, a social philosophy evolved that began to treat all individuals as social equals, and people's attitudes toward dogs begins69 to take on a more personal character. [4] Dogs came to be prized for their loyalty and sacrifice, and as early as 1855, many have suggested, the American English phrase ""man's best friend"" was already commonplace in the language.


It should be no surprise, then, given this long and progressive history of dog ownership, that people come to think of their dogs more and more as near-human members of their families. Think about all the indispensable, yet underappreciated72 roles that dogs play in our lives—they are not just our pets and ""best friends""; they are also indispensable to the practices of law enforcement, firefighting, and assistance to the visually impaired, to name just a few. Although it may seem at first that dogs are just lazy pets, on the one hand73 they are really much more than that. Have a look74 around and you'll find that dogs are an essential part of our modern society. So what if they've got their own hotels and day spas these days—don't you think they've earned them?


B. dog, and
C. dog and
D. dog,

62. Which of the following alternatives to the underlined portion would NOT be acceptable?

F. that are benefiting
G. that have benefited
H. benefiting
J. that having benefited

63. Given that all of the choices are true, which one would most effectively conclude this paragraph while leading into the main focus of the next paragraph?

B. Even since these early times, people have recognized the importance of keeping domesticated dogs.
C. Many argue that the dog has been as important to the unfolding of human history as has the horse.
D. The dog is a major subspecies of the wolf, and many features of its biological makeup are still similar to those of the wolf.


G. Unless
H. Because
J. Whether


B. who
C. whose
D. who's


G. as a consequence,
H. by contrast,
J. moreover,


B. roles,
C. roles:
D. roles;


G. less then
H. lesser than
J. fewer than


B. is beginning
C. began
D. had began

70. If the writer were to delete the phrase "take on a more personal character" from the preceding sentence and replace it with the word "change," the essay would primarily lose:

F. an important description of a dog-breeding technique.
G. a detail that indicates how attitudes toward dogs have changed.
H. information that emphasizes the historical importance of dogs.
J. nothing, since this detail is the topic of the preceding paragraph.

71. For the sake of logic and coherence, Sentence 2 should be placed:

A. where it is now.
B. before Sentence 1.
C. after Sentence 3.
D. after Sentence 4.


G. indispensable yet underappreciated
H. indispensable; yet underappreciated
J. indispensable yet underappreciated,


B. for example
C. in actuality
D. more often than not


G. Having a look
H. To look
J. Looking

75. This question asks about the preceding passage as a whole.

Upon reviewing notes for this essay, the writer comes across some information and composes the following sentence, incorporating that information:

Furthermore, many ancient civilizations, Greek and Egyptian among them, used trained war dogs to aid them in battle.

For the sake of the logic and coherence of the essay, this sentence should be:

A. placed at the end of Paragraph 1.
B. placed at the end of Paragraph 3.
C. placed at the end of Paragraph 5.
D. NOT added to the essay at all.